Scalping is the act of cutting or tearing a part of the human scalp, with hair attached, from the head of an enemy as a trophy. In England in 1036, Earl Godwin, father of Harold Godwinson, scalping forex books review reportedly responsible for scalping his enemies. According to the ancient Abingdon manuscript, ‘some of them were blinded, some maimed, some scalped. No more horrible deed was done in this country since the Danes came and made peace here’.
Scalping was used in the British conquest and occupation of Northern Ireland. Scythians, a nomadic people then located to the north and west of the Black Sea. Herodotus related that Scythian warriors would behead the enemies they defeated in battle and then present the heads to their king, in order to claim their share of the plunder. Specific scalping techniques varied somewhat from place to place, depending on the cultural patterns of the scalper regarding the desired shape, size, and intended use of the severed scalp, and on how the victims wore their hair, but the general process of scalping was quite uniform. Choctaw American Indians, in warpaint, bearing scalps, Alexandre de Batz, 1732. Author and historian Mark van de Logt wrote, “Although military historians tend to reserve the concept of ‘total war'”, in which civilians are targeted, “for conflicts between modern industrial nations,” the term “closely approaches the state of affairs between the Pawnees, the Sioux, and the Cheyennes.
Many tribes of Native Americans practiced scalping, in some instances up until the end of the 19th century. Of the approximately 500 bodies at the Crow Creek massacre site, 90 percent of the skulls show evidence of scalping. The event took place circa 1325 AD. More recently, historian Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz contends that, in reality, Ulster Scots settlers, who were experienced in scalping as foot soldiers in the British occupation of Northern Ireland, introduced the practice of scalping to the Americas. The “Connecticut and Massachusetts colonial officials had offered bounties initially for the heads of murdered Indigenous people and later for only their scalps” during the Pequot War in the 1630s, scalping did not appear in the laws of the American colonies until the mid-1660s. Massachusetts created a scalp bounty during King William’s War in July 1689. During Father Le Loutre’s War and the Seven Years’ War in Nova Scotia and Acadia, French colonists offered payments to Indians for British scalps.
20 for scalps of females or of children under 12 years old. Americans believed British officers paid their Indian allies to scalp American soldiers, c. In 1835, the government of the Mexican state of Sonora put a bounty on the Apache which, over time, evolved into a payment by the government of 100 pesos for each scalp of a male 14 or more years old. Some scalping incidents even occurred during the American Civil War. For example, Confederate guerrillas led by Bloody Bill Anderson were well known for decorating their saddles with the scalps of Union soldiers they had killed. In Stanislaus County in 1851, the US army displayed Indian scalps.
In Tehama County, US military and local volunteers razed villages and scalped hundreds of men, women, and children. Skull of a 20- to 30-year-old decapitated woman of the 3rd century CE. The remains of dead Crow Indians killed and scalped by Piegan Blackfeet c. Native American Big Mouth Spring with decorated scalp lock on right shoulder. Scalping and Similar Warfare Customs in America” with a Critical Introduction.
Human Trophy Taking in Eastern North America During the Archaic Period: The Relationship to Warfare and Social Complexity”. The Taking and Displaying of Human Body Parts as Trophies by Amerindians. Archived from the original on 2017-08-20. An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States.
Scalping and Similar Warfare Customs in America. Seven Years’ Residence in the Great Deserts of North America, Vol. The Judicial Punishment of Delcavatio in Visigothic Spain: A Proposed Solution based on Isidore of Seville and the Lex Visigothorum. 1846, Comprising a Journey from Whydah, through the Kingdom of Dahomey, to Adofoodia, in the Interior, Vol. Scalping and Similar Warfare Customs in America”.
War Party in Blue: Pawnee Scouts in the U. A population history of North America. BOOK REVIEW “An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States” by Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz”. Archived from the original on 2016-03-21.
The First Way of War: American War Making On the Frontier, 1607-1814″. Scalping, Torture, and Mutilation by Indians”. Archived from the original on 2016-08-31. The History of the State of Maine, Vol 2. White Savage: William Johnson and the Invention of America”. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society”.